Here, we are giving the list of Famous and Amazing Caves or Caverns of the World that will not only enhance the general knowledge of aspirants of different examinations but also to the general readers.
1. The Blue Grotto in Capri, Italy
- Getting there: by boat from Marina Grande or by bus from Anacapri
- Ticket price: EUR 14
- Hours: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. The grotto is closed to visitors during rough seas or high winds, and it’s always closed on December 25th and January 1st.
The Blue Grotto is a sea cave on the coast of the island of Capri, southern Italy. Sunlight passing through an underwater cavity and shining through the seawater creates a blue reflection that illuminates the cavern. Entrance to the Blue Grotto is possible only by boarding small rowboats which hold a maximum of four passengers at a time. The entrance ticket must be purchased at the floating ticket office at the cave entrance. After purchasing your ticket, your skipper will ask that you lay back along the bottom of the boat to enable the group to pass through the tiny mouth of the cave. Once inside, your skipper will row you around the cavern, singing traditional Neapolitan folk songs which echo off the rock walls and create an unforgettable atmosphere. In case of rain or rough seas, it is not possible to enter the Blue Grotto. It often happens that the cave can close and reopen in the same day, according to the weather, or that the weather seems calm but the grotto is closed due to adverse winds.
2. The Cave of the Crystals (Mexico)
Cave of the Crystals or Giant Crystal Cave is a cave connected to the Naica Mine at a depth of 300 metres, in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico. It takes the form of a chamber within the limestone host rock of the mine, and is about 109-metre long with a volume of 5,000 to 6,000 cubic metres. The biggest crystal found here was 12 meters in length and 4 meters in diameter! As opposed to the Cave of Swords, the average temperature here is 50-58 degrees Celsius with 90-99% humidity. Because of this extremely hot temperature, this cave is relatively unexplored. Even scientists and researchers with the proper protective gear can only stay in the cave for 30-45 minutes at a time. Over time, gypsum-rich groundwater began seeping into the cavern that is now the Cave of the Crystals, filling the hollow space with gypsum. This alone might not do much, but thanks to the pool of magma beneath the cave, the groundwater remained at 50 degrees Celsius for 500,000 years, allowing selenite crystals to form and grow to gigantic sizes.
3. Krubera Cave (Georgia)
- Depth: 2,197 m (7,208 ft)
- Location: Abkhazia, Georgia
Krubera Cave is the second-deepest-known cave on Earth after the Veryovkina Cave. It is located in the Arabika Massif of the Gagra Range of the Western Caucasus, in the Gagra district of Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia. Krubera Cave was declared the world’s deepest cave in 2001 when Ukrainian speleogolists reached a depth of 1,710 meters, thereby exceeding the previous known reigning champion in the Austrian Alps. At a depth of 1,500 meters, a subterranean waterfall of near-freezing water has flooded a branch of the cave system, while the main branch continues to a depth of 2,140 meters, where a terminal siphon marks the end of the cave.
4. Fingal’s Cave (Scotland)
- Address: Isle of Staffa, United Kingdom
- Discovery: 1772
Fingal’s Cave is a sea cave on the uninhabited island of Staffa, in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, known for its natural acoustics. The National Trust for Scotland owns the cave as part of a national nature reserve. At 72 feet tall and 270 feet deep, what makes this sea cave so visually astoundingly is the hexagonal columns of basalt, shaped in neat six-sided pillars that make up its interior walls. These fractured columns form a crude walkway just above the water level so that visitors can go far inside and explore the cave. The cave was a well-known wonder of the ancient Irish and Scottish Celtic people and was an important site in the legends. Known to the Celts as Uamh-Binn or “The Cave of Melody,” one Irish legend, in particular, explained the existence of the cave as well as that of the similar Giant’s Causeway in Ireland. The legend, which connects the two structures, is in effect geologically correct. Both the Giant’s Causeway and Fingal’s Cave were indeed created by the same ancient lava flow, which may have at one time formed a “bridge” between the two sites.
5. Eisriesenwelt Ice Cave (Austria)
- Address: 5450 Werfen, Austria
- Discovery: 1879
The Eisriesenwelt is a natural limestone and ice cave located in Werfen, Austria, about 40 km south of Salzburg. The cave is inside the Hochkogel mountain in the Tennengebirge section of the Alps. It is the largest ice cave in the world, extending more than 42 km and visited by about 200,000 tourists every year. Eisriesenwelt is the largest of the world’s ice caves, an unusual phenomenon created when ice forms beneath already-created lava or limestone caves underneath the ground. Often confused for one another, glacier caves are formed within ice, while ice caves are formed within stone structures. Despite its freezing temperatures, Eisriesenwelt was thought to be the entrance to hell according to Austrian lore. Because of its creepy reputation, Austrians didn’t explore the cave until Anton Posselt traversed its icy depths in 1879. The cave started gaining popularity with tourists in the 1920s, when the first paths up the mountain to the caves were built. Today, Eisriesenwelt is relatively unknown throughout the world and only hosts around 200,000 visitors each year. Even those who are able to visit the enormous cave only get to see a fraction of it—about one kilometer of the cave’s total 40 kilometers.